1, design background
The word "robot" is derived from the Czech word "robota", which means "forced labor." In 1920, the Czechoslovak writer Sapek wrote a script called "Lausanne Universal Robot Company". He named the guys who produced labor at the Lausanne Universal Robot Company "Robot", and the Chinese transliteration was "Robert". Czech means "Slave" - â€‹â€‹Sapec identified the status of the robot as a slave who worked hard and was forced to squeeze by human beings. Their value was only to serve humanity. They have no thinking ability, can't think, just a human-like machine, so that people can get rid of labor.
In 1946, Dvor in the United States invented a system that "replayed" the movement of recorded machines. In 1954, Dvor was patented by the programmable robot. This robotic arm works according to the program and can be programmed according to different work needs, so it is versatile and flexible. In 1959, Ingeberg and DeWol, who studied servo theory at the university, teamed up to create the first industrial robot. The shape of the robot is a bit like a turret. The base has a large robotic arm. The boom can be pivoted around the base. Rotating up, a small robotic arm is extended on the upper arm, which can extend or retract relative to the big arm. There is a wrist on the top of the arm that can be rotated around the arm for raising and sideways. The front of the wrist is the hand, the operator. The robot's function is similar to that of a human arm. This is the world's first truly practical industrial robot.
So far, the development of robotics can be roughly divided into the following three stages:
The first generation is a programmable teach-and-reproduce robot, which is characterized in that the robot can repeat the work in accordance with the program taught to them in advance. In 1959, the world's first industrial robot made by American Ingeberg and Devol was a teaching reappearance type, that is, the robot held the robot and performed the task that should be completed, or the person used the teaching control box to issue it. Command, let the robot's mechanical arm move, step by step to complete the various actions it should complete;
The second generation robot (1970s) is an off-line programming robot with certain sensory functions and self-adaptive capabilities, which is characterized in that the content of the work can be changed according to the condition of the work object, the so-called "perceptual judgment robot";
The third generation of robots (after the mid-1980s) is an intelligent robot with a variety of sensors that can fuse the information obtained by multiple sensors, can adapt to changing environments, and is highly adaptive. Ability, learning ability and autonomy function.
For a branch of the robotics field, mobile robots, its research began in the late 1960s, and Nits Nilssen and Charles Rosen of the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) developed a self-determination called Shake from 1966 to 1972. move robot.
After entering the 1980s, people's research direction gradually shifted to the research of indoor mobile robots for practical applications, and gradually formed the concept of autonomous mobile robot AMR (Indoor Autonomous Mobile Robot). The US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has specifically established a strategic plan for the ground-based astronomical combat platform. Since then, the world has begun to fully study the outdoor mobile robots, such as the DARPA's "Strategic Computer" program in the Autonomous Ground Vehicles (ALV) program (1983-1990), the Ministry of Energy developed a 10-year robot and intelligent system Plan (RIPS) (1986-1995), and later Space Robot Project: Robotics program operating in extreme environments organized by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan: Robotics program in Eureka Europe. The initial research mainly studies the architecture and information processing of outdoor robots from an academic perspective, and establishes an experimental system for verification. Although the research on the intelligent behavior of robots was too high in the 1980s, the research on outdoor robots did not achieve the expected results, but it also led to the development of related technologies, and accumulated experience for exploring the way humans develop intelligent robots. At the same time, it has also promoted the research and development of mobile robots in other countries.
In China, starting from the "seventh five-year plan", China's mobile robot research has begun, and after years of development, it has achieved certain results. The intelligent mobile robot of Tsinghua University passed the appraisal in 1994. Key technologies involved in five aspects: map-based global path planning technology research (global path planning in quasi-structured road network environment, global path planning with obstacles in off-road environment, global path planning in natural terrain environment); Research on local path planning technology based on sensor information ("perceive-action" behavior based on multiple sensor information, "perceive-action" behavior based on environmental potential field method, local path planning and navigation control based on fuzzy control); path planning Research on simulation technology (simulation of map-based global path planning system, simulation of outdoor mobile robot planning system, simulation of indoor mobile robot local path planning system); sensing technology, information fusion technology research (differential global satellite positioning) System, magnetic compass and optical disk positioning system, ultrasonic ranging system, visual processing technology information fusion technology; intelligent mobile robot design and implementation (Intelligent mobile robot THMR-111 architecture, efficient and fast data transmission technology, automatic driving system ). Automated navigation vehicles and service robots at the Centre for Intelligent Design, Automation and Manufacturing Research at the City University of Hong Kong. AGV and explosion-proof robot of Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The omnidirectional mobile robot vision navigation system designed and manufactured by the Institute of Automation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Harbin Institute of Technology developed a successful guide robot in 1996 and so on.
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